AbiuBy admin On January 26, 2012 Under How to's
A few questions anwered about Abiu Health info history ect..
Q. How many calories in 100 grams of Abiu fruit ?
A. Varies depending on where it is from between 95 – 140 calories.
Q. How much protien is in 100 grams of Abiu fruit ?
A. 1.8 to 2.1 grams again depending on the orgins of the fruit.
Q. How may varieties of Abiu fruit.
A. There is much variation in the form, size and quality of the fruits of seedling trees, some having firm flesh, some soft; and some are insipid, while others have agreeable flavor. At Puerto Ospina, along the Putamayo River in Colombia, there is a type that fruits in 4 years. The fruit is round and large. Near the River Inirida, in Vaupés, Colombia, there is a type that bears in one year from seed, but the fruits are small with little pulp.
Q. What information about the orgins of Abiu can you give me.
A. The abiu is a denizen of the headwaters of the Amazon. It grows wild on the lower eastern slopes of the Andes from southwestern Venezuela to Peru. It is often cultivated around Iquitos, Peru. In Ecuador, it is common in the Province of Guayas and the fruits are sold in the markets of Guayaquil. It is much grown around Pará, Brazil; less frequently near Rio de Janeiro, and to a limited extent at Bahia. In Colombia, it is fairly common in the regions of Caquetá, Meta and Vaupés and it abounds in the adjacent areas of Amazonas, Venezuela. It has been growing for many years in Trinidad.
The plant explorers, Dorsett, Shamel and Popenoe, collected seeds for the United States Department of Agriculture in Bahia in 1914 (S.P.I. #37929). In 1915, seeds were received from Lavoras, Minas, Brazil (S.P.I. #41003). This species has been planted several times at the Agricultural Research and Education Center, Homestead, Florida, but most of the young plants have been killed by winter cold. A few trees planted in 1953 fruited in 1962.
Q. Can you list health information about Abiu fruit ?
|Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*|
|Protein||1.8 - 2.1 g|
|Vitamin B,||0.2 mg|
|Vitamin B2||0.2 mg|
|Ascorbic Acid||49.0 mg|
|Amino Acids (mg per g of nitrogen [N 6.25])|
Q. Are there any medical uses for Abiu Fruit?
A. Medicinal Uses: In Brazil, the pulp, because of its mucilaginous nature, is eaten to relieve coughs, bronchitis and other pulmonary complaints. The latex is given as a vermifuge and purge and is applied on abscesses.
Q. What else can you tell me about Abiu Fruit?
A. Abiu is a minor member of the Sapotaceae, the abiu, Pouteria caimito Radlk. (syns. Lucuma caimito Roem. & Schult.; Achras caimito Ruiz & Pavón), has acquired few vernacular names. In Colombia, it is called caimito, caimito amarilla, caimo or madura verde; in Ecuador, luma or cauje; in Venezuela, temare; in Brazil, abiu, abi, abio, abieiro or caimito. It is called yellow star apple in Trinidad.
The tree has a pyramidal or rounded crown; is generally about 33 ft (10 m) high but may reach 115 ft (35 m) in favorable situations. A gummy latex, white or reddish, exudes from wounds in the bark. The leaves are alternate and highly variable; may be ovate-oblong, obovate or elliptic; 4 to 8 in (10-20 cm) long, 1 1/4 to 2 3/8 in (3-6 cm) wide; short-pointed at the apex, sometimes long-tapering at the base; smooth or with a few scattered hairs. The flowers, borne singly or in groups of 2 to 5 in the leaf axils, are cylindrical, 4- to 5-lobed, white or greenish; 1/6 to 1/3 in (4-8 mm) long. The fruit, downy when young, is ovoid, elliptical or round; 1 1/2 to 4 in (4-10 cm) long, sometimes having a short nipple at the apex; with smooth, tough, pale-yellow skin when ripe and fragrant, white, mucilaginous, translucent, mild-flavored, sweet or insipid pulp containing 1 to 4 oblong seeds, brown, with a pale hilum on one side. Until fully ripe, the fruit is permeated with latex and is very gummy and astringent.
The abiu is strictly tropical or near-tropical. It thrives best in a year-around warm and moist climate, yet Popenoe noted that it does well in somewhat cooler Rio de Janeiro. In Peru it has not been found above 2,000 ft (650 m), though in Colombia, it can be grown up to an elevation of 6,000 ft (1,900 m).
The fruits are in season in March and April in Ecuador. They are sold in some Brazilian markets from September to April but only a few are seen in the much shorter season of February and March at Bahia. Fruits have matured in October in Florida. The abiu can be picked while underripe and firm for transport to markets.
In Brazil, the washed seeds are dried in the shade and then planted, 3 together and 2 in (5 cm) deep in enriched soil. They will germinate in 15 to 20 days. When the seedlings are 4 in (10 cm) high, the 2 weakest are removed. The strong one is set out when 12 to 16 in (30-40 cm) high. Spacing is 17 x 20 ft (6 x 5 m). One year later, the lower branches are pruned. Fruiting will begin in 3 years; will be substantial in 5 years.
Pests and Diseases Actually, the fruit has little value commercially because it is commonly damaged by small insects (bichos in Spanish and Portuguese). In Brazil, the chief pests are said to be fruit flies.
Food Uses In Colombia, people who wish to eat the abiu. are advised to grease their lips beforehand to keep the gummy latex from clinging to them. It is mostly eaten out-of-hand but, in Pará, some types are used to make ices and ice cream.
Wood: The wood is dense and heavy, hard, and valued for construction.
|Ripen at room warmth and store in the refrigerator crisper for a short period. 10°C and 90 – 95% relative moisture.
Fruit is very delicate and wants to be packed carefully.
|- Eat only the soft “jelly like” fruit and don’t scratch too close to the skin which exudes an unpleasant milk core.|
Young abiu trees should be trained to form 3 to 5 main scaffold limbs during the first 2 to 3 years after planting. Mature trees should be maintained at 8 to 12 ft (2.4-3.7 m) by annual, selective removal of poorly placed and upright limbs.
Mulching abiu trees in the home landscape helps retain soil moisture, reduces weed problems next to the tree trunk, and improves the soil near the surface. Mulch with a 2- to 6-inch (5- to 15-cm) layer of bark, wood chips, or similar mulch material. Keep mulch 8 to 12 inches (20-30 cm) from the trunk.
In Florida, young trees should be fertilized every 1 to 2 months during the first year, beginning with 1/4 lb (114 g) of fertilizer and increasing to 1 lb (455 g) per tree (Table 2). Thereafter, 3 or 4 applications per year in amounts proportionate to the increasing size of the tree are sufficient, but do not exceed 20 lbs per tree per year.
Fertilizer mixtures containing 6 to 10% nitrogen, 6 to 10% available phosphoric acid, 6 to 10% potash, and 4 to 6% magnesium give satisfactory results with young trees. For bearing trees, potash should be increased to 9 to 15% and available phosphoric acid reduced to 2 to 4%. Examples of commonly available fertilizer mixes include 6-6-6-2 [6 (N)-6 (P2O5)-6 (K2O)-2 (Mg)] and 8-3-9-2 [8 (N)-3 (P2O5)-6 (K2O)-3 (Mg)].
From spring through summer, trees should receive 3 to 4 annual nutritional sprays of copper, zinc, manganese, and boron for the first 4 to 5 years. Abiu trees are susceptible to iron deficiency under alkaline and high-pH soil conditions. Iron deficiency can be prevented or corrected by periodic soil applications of iron chelates formulated for alkaline and high-soil-pH conditions. Periodic applications of ferrous (iron) sulfate may be made to trees growing in low-pH soils.
Newly planted abiu trees should be watered at planting and every other day for the first month or so and then 1 to 2 times a week for the next couple of months. During prolonged dry periods (e.g., 5 or more days of little to no rainfall), newly planted and young abiu trees (first 3 years) should be well watered twice a week. Once the rainy season arrives, irrigation may be reduced or stopped.
Once abiu trees are 4 or more years old, irrigation will be beneficial to plant growth and crop yields during prolonged dry periods. The specific water requirements for mature trees have not been determined. However, as with other tree crops, the period from bloom and through fruit development is important, and drought stress should be avoided at this time with periodic watering.
Abiu is commonly propagated by seed; seedling trees usually begin fruit production in 3 to 4 years after planting. Once extracted from the fruit, abiu seeds do not remain viable for more than a couple of days and should therefore be planted as soon possible into clean, well-drained media. Seedling trees come into production in 2 to 5 years from planting. Abiu may also be grafted or budded onto seedling rootstocks and begin fruiting in 1 to 2 years.
Production (Crop Yields)
The amount of fruit produced varies greatly among abiu seedling trees. Some mature seedling trees may produce little fruit; others yield 400 lbs (182 kg) of fruit per year. Historically abiu season in Florida has been during the fall.
Abiu trees should be planted at least 25 ft (7.6 m) from nearby trees and structures because mature trees not regularly pruned may become quite large.
Abiu trees are best adapted to fertile, acid- to slightly alkaline-pH (5.5-7.5), well-drained soils. Trees growing in high-pH, alkaline soils may develop iron deficiency.
Planting an Abiu Tree in the Home Landscape
Proper planting is one of the most important steps in successfully establishing and growing a strong, productive tree. The first step is to choose a healthy nursery tree. Commonly, nursery abiu trees are grown in 3-gallon (11-liter) containers and trees stand 2 to 4 ft (0.6-0.9 m) from the surface of the soil media. Large trees in smaller containers should be avoided as the root system may be “root bound.” This means all the available space in the container has been filled with roots to the point that the tap root is growing along the edge of the container in a circular fashion. Root bound root systems may not grow properly once planted in the ground. Inspect the tree for insect pests and diseases, and inspect the trunk of the tree for wounds and constrictions. Select a healthy tree and water it regularly in preparation for planting in the ground.
In general, abiu trees should be planted in full sun for best growth and fruit production. Select a part of the landscape away from other trees, buildings and structures, and power lines. Remember, abiu trees can become large if not pruned to contain their size. Select the warmest area of the landscape that does not flood (or remain wet) after typical summer rainfall.
Planting in Sandy Soil
Many areas in Florida have sandy soil. Remove a 3- to 10-ft-diameter (0.9- to 3.1-m) ring of grass sod. Dig a hole 3 to 4 times the diameter and 3 times as deep as the container the abiu tree came in. Making a large hole loosens the soil next to the new tree, making it easy for the roots to expand into the adjacent soil. It is not necessary to apply fertilizer, topsoil, or compost to the hole. In fact, placing topsoil or compost in the hole first and then planting on top of it is not desirable. If you wish to add topsoil or compost to the native soil, mix it with the excavated soil in no more than a 1:1 ratio.
Backfill the hole with some of the excavated native soil. Remove the tree from the container and place it in the hole so that the top of the soil media from the container is level with or slightly above the surrounding soil level. Fill soil in around the tree roots and tamp slightly to remove air pockets. Immediately water the soil around the tree and tree roots. Staking the tree with a wooden or bamboo stake is optional. However, do not use wire or nylon rope to tie the tree to the stake because they may eventually damage the tree trunk as it grows. Use a cotton or natural fiber string that will degrade slowly.
Planting in Rockland Soil
Many areas in Miami-Dade County have a very shallow soil, and several inches below the soil surface is hard, calcareous bedrock. Remove a 3- to 10-ft-diameter (0.9- to 3.1-m) ring of grass sod. Make a hole 3 to 4 times the diameter and 3 times as deep as the container the abiu tree came in. To dig a hole, use a pick and digging bar to break up the rock or contract with a company that has augering equipment or a backhoe. Plant the tree as described for sandy soils.
Planting on a Mound
Many areas in Florida are within 7 ft (2.1 m) or so of the water table and experience occasional flooding after heavy rains. To improve plant survival consider planting fruit trees on a 2- to 3-ft-high by 4- to 10-ft-diameter (0.6- to 0.9-m by1.2- to 3.1-m) mound of native soil. After the mound is made, dig a hole 3 to 4 times the diameter and 3 times as deep as the container the tree came in. In areas where the bedrock nearly comes to the surface (rockland soil), follow the recommendations for the previous section. In areas with sandy soil follow the recommendations from the section on planting in sandy soil.
Alternate, oblong to elliptic, 4 to 8 inches (10-20 cm) long and 1 ¼ to 2 3/8 inches (3.2-6.0 cm) wide.
The flowers are borne singly or in a clusters of 2 to 5 flowers in leaf axils on long, thin shoots. Flowers are hermaphroditic, small, 4- to 5-lobed, cylindrical, and white to greenish. Flowers open during the morning and may stay open for about 2 days.
Ovoid to round, 1 ½ to 4 inches (3.8-10.2 cm) in diameter, 10 to 25 oz (283-708 g), commonly with a short nipple at the apex. The peel is smooth, tough, and pale to bright yellow when ripe. The pulp is white, translucent, jelly-like, mild-flavored, and sweet in better selections and insipid in undesirable trees. There are 1 to 5 brown seeds. Immature fruit is permeated with unpleasant, gummy latex; fully ripe fruit have little to no latex. Fruit take 100 to 130 days from flowering.
No specific information on the pollination requirements or pollinators (insects) of abiu has been documented. Flying insects are probably the pollinators.
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